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Pastry 101

Here is a quick snapshot of some of the building blocks of pastry - doughs, fillings, and finishers. The lists are not comprehensive, but serve as the most common and popular of the pasty world. 

Doughs 

Bread vs pastry

Both bread and pastry are made from dough. However, pastry uses a higher fat content, giving it a flakier or crumblier texture. The fat interacts with the pastry dough in a way that reduces the amount of gluten formed, which gives it its texture. While the allowance of gluten to form in bread gives it its toughness and elasticity. 


Viennoiserie vs pâtisserie

Pâtisserie is used to describe both French pastries and the pastry shop they are sold in. Pâtisserie is traditionally light and delicate, sweet and decadent and the finished products are as beautiful as they are delicious.The main components of pastries are eggs, butter, milk, cream, and sugar. Most of the items are that are made with flour do not use yeast. 

Viennoserie refers to breakfast pastries made in the style of Vienna, Austria.  They are more breadlike and typically made with flour and active yeast culture or enriched puff pastry. Viennoiserie is fattier and sweeter than everyday bread but less complex and decadent compared to patisserie.


Leavened vs unleavened dough

Unleavened dough’s main ingredients are flour and water and sometimes oil. No leavening agent is used so the dough remains relatively flat. While leavened dough is made using a chemical, natural, or mechanical leavening agent. The leavening agents create small air bubbles in the dough causing it to rise. Leavening agents include yeast, yogurt, baking soda. 

Laminated vs non-laminated dough

Laminated dough is folded several times with butter to create layers. Non-laminated dough is only folded once. An example of a laminated dough pastry is a croissant, and non-laminated is an éclair.
 

Doughs

Pâtes friables/Flaky Pastry/Shortcrust

  • Sablée 

  • Brisée

  • Sucrée 

  • Pâte à foncer

Pâte feuilletée/Puff Pastry

  • Rough puff pastry

  • Leavened puff pastry

Pâte à choux/Choux Pastry

Pâte phyllo/Filo Pastry

Pâtes battues/Beaten batters

  • Pâte génoise 

  • Pâte à madeleine

  • Pâte à biscuit 

Pâte viennoise/Yeasted dough

Hot water crust

Bread dough

Brioche Dough

Croissant dough

Sourdough

Kourou dough

Pastries

Viennoiseries

Brioche
Bhausson aux pommes
Chouquette
Croissant

Kouign amann
Pain au chocolat
Pain au lait
Pain aux raisins
Palmier

Viennois

Pâtisserie

Canelé

Croquembouche

Éclairs

Financier

Fruit tartes (framboise, citron, normande, etc)

Jesuite

Madeline

Mille-feuille

Opera

Paris-brestProfiterole
Religieuse
Saint Honoré
Tarte tatin

Cakes + Cookies

Cakes

Flourless

Fruit cakes (carrot

Oil cake

Pound cake

Red velvet

Sponge cakes:

  • Angel food

  • Biscuit/ Ladyfingers

  • Chiffon

  • Jaconde 

  • Génoise

  • Victoria


Cookies

Meringue

Shortbread

Macarons

Palmiers,

Lace cookies, 

waffles cookies, 

Tuile

Florentines

Sablé

Gaulettes

Bredele

Canistrelli

Dacquoise

Breads

Baguette

Brioche

Boule de pain

Croissant

Ficelle

Fougasse
French bread

Gibassier
Pain au son

Pain brie

Pain complet

Pain de campagne
Sourdough

Fillings + Finishings

Frosting vs Icing

Frosting is generally thick and fluffy. It is used to coat the outside (and sometimes inner layers) of a cake. Icing is thinner and glossier than frosting, and can be used as a glaze or for detailed decorating work.

Fillings

Creamy fillings

Bavarian/Bavarois

Caramel

Chantilly/sweetened whipped cream

Crèmeux

Crème anglaise/custard

Crème au beurre/ buttercream

Crème chiboust

Crème diplomat/diplomat cream

Crème fraiche

Crème madame

Crème mousseline/muslin cream

Crème patissiere/pastry cream

Double cream

Flavored cream 

Frangipane cream

Ganache

Mousse

Sabayon cream

 

Fruity fillings

 

Confit

Compote

Coulis

Gel

Fruit curds

Jam

Jelly
 

Crunchy fillings

Crispearls

Crumble

Feuillantine

Nuts

Streusel

Finishings

Frosting

Buttercreams

  • Simple (American) buttercream

  • Swiss meringue buttercream

  • Italian meringue buttercream

  • French buttercream

  • German buttercream

  • Ermine buttercream

Whipped cream frosting

Fudge frosting

Ganache

Royal icing

Whipped cream

Icing and glazes

 

Caramel icing

Chocolate ganache glaze

Clear glaze

Drip glaze

Fruit tart glaze

Glacé Icing

Marzipan

Mirror Glaze

Poured fondant

Royal icing

Rolled fondant

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