French pastry is known for its delicate, flaky, and buttery textures, and a key component to achieving these characteristics is the type of dough used. There are several different types of doughs used in French pastry-making, each with its own unique properties and uses. Here are some of the most common types of doughs used in French pastry:
Pâte brisée: Pâte brisée, also known as shortcrust pastry, is a versatile dough that is used for both sweet and savory dishes. It is made by mixing flour, butter, salt, and water until a smooth dough forms. Pâte brisée is used for tarts, quiches, and other dishes where a crisp and buttery crust is desired.
Pâte sablée: Pâte sablée, or sweet shortcrust pastry, is similar to pâte brisée, but it contains more sugar and is often flavored with vanilla or other sweet ingredients. It is used for sweet tarts, cookies, and other pastries where a sweet, crumbly texture is desired.
Pâte feuilletée: Pâte feuilletée, or puff pastry, is a light and flaky dough that is made by layering butter and dough and rolling and folding it multiple times to create layers. Pâte feuilletée is used for croissants, chouquettes, and other pastries where a light, flaky texture is desired.
Pâte à choux: Pâte à choux, or choux pastry, is a dough that is made by mixing flour, butter, water, and eggs to create a smooth paste. It is used for making éclairs, churros, and other pastries where a light and puffy texture is desired.
Pâte sucrée: Pâte sucrée, or sweet crust pastry, is a sweet dough that is similar to pâte sablée, but it contains more sugar and is often flavored with lemon or orange zest. It is used for sweet tarts and other pastries where a sweet and crumbly crust is desired.
Each of these doughs has its own unique properties and uses in French pastry-making, and choosing the right dough is crucial to achieving the desired texture and flavor in your pastries. Whether you're making a savory tart or a sweet croissant, the type of dough you choose can make all the difference in the final product.